Statement of Ethics

Archives of Pediatric Neurosurgery adheres to the ethical standards described by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Archives of Pediatric Neurosurgery is also listed in the ICMJE list of journals following their recommendations. Editors, Authors, and Reviewers are expected to adhere to these standards.

The editors of APN are committed to using COPE’s flowcharts ( in case of suspected ethical violations related to the following cases of suspected misconduct: duplicate publication; plagiarism; data fabrication; undisclosed conflict of interest; as well as any other suspicious ethical problems of submitted papers.

The editors are committed to ensuring fair play and confidentiality principles while handling papers submitted to APN. They are also responsible for advising reviewers on using those same principles for evaluating contributions assigned to them. Reviewers should promptly send their reviews using relevant and well-structured arguments to help the authors improve their paper.

Authors should ensure their paper follows ethical principles, especially regarding:

  • Originality and Plagiarism: The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the words of others, this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
  • Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publication: An author should not publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal.
  • Authorship of the Paper: Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study.
  • Errors in published works: When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, the author must promptly notify Archives of Pediatric Neurosurgery and cooperate with the Editor to retract or correct the paper.

Human Subjects

Manuscripts that involve research conducted on human subjects must follow the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki and include a statement in the Methods section stating that the experimental protocol and informed consent were approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB), and that all subjects gave informed consent. If IRB approval or patient consent was not sought or obtained, authors should include an explanation in the Methods section. Authors should indicate the mechanism used for reviewing the ethics of the research conducted in their cover letter.

Animal Subjects

Manuscripts that report animal experiments must include a statement in the Methods section stating that the study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and that the animal care complied with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Washington: National Academy Press, 1996). Authors should indicate the mechanism used for reviewing the ethics of the research conducted in their cover letter.

Note: Though not required at the time of submission, authors should be prepared to provide evidence of IRB/Ethics Committee adherence if requested by the Editor.

Patient Consent

It is the policy of the Journal that no identifiable protected health information (PHI) of any person may be included in any manuscript submitted to or published by Archives of Pediatric Neurosurgery publications unless the information is essential for the scientific integrity or purpose of the manuscript or published work and the patient has given written informed consent. This policy includes, but is not limited to, any identifiable protected health information subject to applicable laws and regulations concerning the privacy and/or security of personal information.

Authors should pay close attention to images that contain identifiable individual patient characteristics or data such as eyes, date of birth, case number, initials, birthmarks, scars, tattoos, piercings, etc. Care should be taken where an individual’s head or face appears, or where reference is made to an individual’s name or other personal details. Particular care should be taken where children are concerned.

Author(s) shall take all steps necessary to ensure that (1) there is no PHI contained in any text, data, or images in the manuscript unless that PHI is necessary to the scientific integrity of the publication and the patient has provided consent to the publication of their PHI; and (2) all other pre-existing PHI, if any, has been fully anonymized and de-identified (see below for how to properly anonymize and de-identify data).

As a condition of submission to the Archives of Pediatric Neurosurgery Publications, all authors warrant that he or she has obtained, prior to submission, written releases from patients whose names or likenesses are submitted as part of the Work. Should the Journal or Publisher request copies of such written releases, authors shall provide them in a timely manner. In addition to the foregoing requirements, each author must ensure that each authorizing individual, or the individual's legal guardian or other person with legal authority to act on the individual's behalf, who may be identified in any video, recording, photograph, image, illustration or case report (or in any other identifiable form) relating to a proposed manuscript is made aware in advance of the fact that such photographs are being taken or such video, recording, photograph, image, illustration or report is being made, and of all the purposes for which they might be used, including disclosure to Archives of Pediatric Neurosurgery  Publications and use by Archives of Pediatric Neurosurgery Publications and any affiliated publication. Such individual, legal guardian, or person with legal authority must give his/her explicit written authorization in writing. If authorization has been obtained, care must be taken to ensure that the portrayals and captioning of any individual are respectful and could not be seen as denigrating that individual. In the case of images of a child, it is important to ensure that images show only children in a suitable dress in order to reduce the risk of images being used inappropriately. If such authorization is made subject to any conditions (for example, adopting measures to prevent personal identification of the person concerned), APN Publications must be made aware in writing of all such conditions. If an author does not obtain the written authorization of the individual or the individual’s legal guardian, the video, etc. cannot be used in the Work.  

Patient Consent form - English

Patient Consent form - Portuguese